CLOSING THE CYCLE WITH HYDROGEN
Prof. Dr. Andreas Züttel
EMPA Materials Science & Technology, Switzerland, email@example.com
Delft University of Technology, Delft ChemTech, Faculty of Applied Science, Delft, The Netherlands
November 1, 2013, Friday@ 10:40
The worldwide energy demand increases just as rapidly as the average temperature of the atmosphere. The reserves of fossil fuels worldwide are limited and the combustion of the carbon fuels leads to a severe increase of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The latter is responsible for the climate change. Industrialization was based on an open cycle, i.e. mining of materials and fossil fuels, manufacturing the products and disposal of the used materials as well as release of the CO2 in the atmosphere. The sustainability of the post industrialization era is determined by the ability to close the materials cycles i.e. to change from fossil fuels as energy carriers to renewable energy. Since renewable energy (solar, geothermal and planet movement) occurs in energy fluxes, an appropriate energy carrier has to be synthesized. Furthermore, all products used have to be recycled and the materials reused, otherwise the industrialization of the world largest countries India and China will not be possible. According to statistical considerations the world population will stabilize at approx. 10 billion humans in 2050 thanks to growing wealth in the developing countries. That is an increase in the number of people by 25% and a large increase in demand for resources if all would reach the living standard of western Europe. As a consequence garbage-burning stations have to be replaced with recycling plants, nuclear waste deposits with reprocessing plants and carbon capture and sequestration with CO2 extracted from the atmosphere and reduction to hydrocarbons with hydrogen. Only products, which are naturally recycled with the same rate as they are released, and neutral products, e.g. water, can be released or deposited without affecting the sustainability. There are just two ways to close the cycle: remove the carbon from the energy cycle and introduce hydrogen as an energy carrier for the solar energy or to extract CO2 from the atmosphere and to reduce it with hydrogen to synthetic fuels. An energy system based on hydrogen suffers from the limited energy density in a hydrogen storage material. On the other hand, the extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere, with the today known processes, is energy demanding and requires a large surface area. However, the production of hydrogen from renewable energy and the storage of hydrogen, i.e. the reaction of hydrogen with a metals or CO2, leading to a high energy density material are the crucial steps in the future energy system.
The established routes for the reduction of CO2 are the Sabatier reaction for methane, the reversed water gas shift reaction for CO combined with the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for hydrocarbons and the reduction of CO2 to methanol for dimethylether and hydrocarbons. Less common reactions are the methane activation, the reduction of CO2 on metal hydrides and the co-electrolysis of CO2 and water. Thermodynamicaly the hydrocarbons conserve approx. 76% (5470kJ/7145kJ) of the energy in the hydrogen used to reduce the CO2.
Born 1963 in Bern, Switzerland. 1985 Engineering Degree in Chemistry, Burgdorf, Switzerland. Research work "Polyurethan network formation" with Dow Chemical in Terneuzen, Netherlands. 1990 Diploma in Physics from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. 1993 Dr. rer. nat. from the science faculty at the University of Fribourg. 1994 Post doc "Amorphous hydrides and optical films" with AT&T Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA. 1996 Head of the Metalhydride and Energy Storage Group in the Physics Department of the University of Fribourg. 1997 Lecturer at the Physics Department University of Fribourg. 2001 Vice president of the Swiss hydrogen association "Hydropole". Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of IMRA EUROPE. Member of the Technical Advisory Committee of HERA. 2003 External professor at the Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam, Netherlands. 2004 Habilitation in experimental physics at the science faculty of the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, Vice-President of the Swiss Physical Society (SPS), President of the Swiss Hydrogen Association "HYDROPOLE". 2006 Head of the section "Hydrogen & Energy" at the Swiss National Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Empa. Prof. tit. in the Physics department of the University of Fribourg.
Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO2 to CH4 and CO over Pt-K-Ta/Ni/ Al2O3 catalysts
Dr. Fadime Hoşoğlu
EMPA Materials Science & Technology, Switzerland, firstname.lastname@example.org
November 1, 2013, Friday@ 11:10
The development of sustainable energy focused not on limited fossil fuels, but on renewable energy. Production of hydrocarbons from the mix of CO2 and H2 over a multifunctional catalyst is aimed as a function of large applications of the hydrocarbons such as combustible fuel sources and chemicals.
Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide is important for the utilization of carbon dioxide as a carbon resource such as for hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon fuels provide the majority of all transportation energy and petroleum is the dominant feedstock from which transportation fuels are produced. Hydrocarbons produced from fossils and biomass as well as carbon-free energy carriers is potentially more sustainable alternatives. The benefits of hydrocarbons over carbon-free energy carriers include higher energy density and use of existing infrastructure.
The goal of the project is to develop a new energy storage process based on the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide from air and hydrogen from water and renewable energy. An object of this project is valorization of CO2 to against to global warming because of its sera effects. The other objective of this project, to develop a new micro reactor to increase catalytic performance.