Micro- and nanoscale technologies have been shown to be powerful techniques in addressing the current challenges in tissue engineering. These technologies have allowed for an unprecedented ability to control cell-cell, cell-microenvironment and cell-soluble factors interactions through miniaturized assays for high-throughput cell-based studies. Hydrogels are excellent scaffolding materials in tissue engineering because they generate three dimensional (3D) hydrated environments for cellular support resembling in vivo conditions. Our group has been actively involved in merging of complex 3D hydrogels and micro/nanoscale technologies to precisely control cellular microenvironments and create 3D vascularized tissue constructs. Our work encompasses a wide range of scientific subjects from materials science to biology. In this presentation, I will outline our work in the development of microscale hydrogels to modulate cell-microenvironment interactions for tissue engineering applications. I will also highlight some of the clinical applications of the engineered tissue constructs.