DİNLE

Instruments

Centrifuges

Only trained users should operate centrifuges. They must be properly installed according to manufacturer recommendations. It is important that the load is balanced each time the centrifuge is used and that the lid is closed while the rotor is in motion. The disconnect switch must be working properly to shut off the equipment when the top is opened, and the manufacturer’s instructions for safe operating speeds must be followed.

Take the following precautions when operating and inspecting centrifuge rotors:

  • Balance the load each time the centrifuge is used and also pay extra attention for high-speed centrifuges (balance them in mg levels). The disconnect switch should automatically shut off the equipment when the top is opened.
  • Do not overfill the centrifuge tubes (fill 1/3 only). Ensure that they are hung properly.
  • Ensure that the lid is closed before starting the centrifuge.
  • Do not overload a rotor beyond the rotor’s maximum mass without reducing the rated rotor speed.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for safe operating speeds. Do not run a rotor beyond its maximum rated speed.
  • Check O-rings and grease the seals routinely with vacuum grease.
  • Do not use harsh detergents to clean the rotors, especially aluminum rotors. Use a mild detergent and rinse with deionized water, if possible.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for when to retire a rotor.
  • For flammable and/or hazardous materials, keep the centrifuge under negative pressure to a suitable exhaust system.
  • Keep a usage and maintenance log.
  • Always use the rotor specified by the manufacturer.
  • Inspect the components of the centrifuge each time it is used.
  • Look for signs of corrosion of the rotors. Metal fatigue will eventually cause any rotor to fail.
  • Ensure that the coating on the rotor is not damaged.
  • Check the cone area for cracks, because this area is highly stressed during rotation.
  • Look for corrosion or cracks in the tube cavity.

Heating Devices and Thermal Safety

Most labs use at least one type of heating device, such as ovens, hot plates, heating mantles and tapes, oil baths, salt baths, sand baths, air baths, hot-tube furnaces, hot-air guns and microwave ovens. Steam-heated devices are generally preferred whenever temperatures of 100 ˚C or less are required because they do not present shock or spark risks and can be left unattended with assurance that their temperature will never exceed 100˚C. Ensure the supply of water for steam generation is sufficient prior to leaving the reaction for any extended period of time.

When working with heating devices, consider the following general precautions:

  • The actual heating element in any laboratory heating device should be enclosed in such a fashion as to prevent a laboratory user or any metallic conductor from accidentally touching the wire carrying the electric current.
  • If a heating device becomes so worn or damaged that its heating element is exposed, repair the device before it is used again or discard the device.
  • Use a variable autotransformer on a laboratory heating device to control the input voltage by supplying some fraction of the total line voltage, typically 220 V.
  • Locate the external cases of all variable autotransformers where water and other chemicals cannot be spilled onto them and where they will not be exposed to flammable liquids or vapors.
  • Fail-safe devices can prevent fires or explosions that may arise if the temperature of a reaction increases significantly because of a change in line voltage, the accidental loss of reaction solvent or loss of cooling. Some devices will turn off the electric power if the temperature of the heating device exceeds some preset limit or if the flow of cooling water through a condenser is stopped owing to the loss of water pressure or loosening of the water supply hose to a condenser.

Please see Personal Protective Equipment section for necessary thermal protection and Emergency Procedures for thermal burn kit description.

Ovens

Electrically heated ovens are commonly used in the laboratory to remove water or other solvents from chemical samples and to dry laboratory glassware.

Laboratory ovens are constructed such that their heating elements and their temperature controls are physically separated from their interior atmospheres.

Laboratory ovens rarely have a provision for preventing the discharge of the substances volatilized in them. Connecting the oven vent directly to an exhaust system can reduce the possibility of substances escaping into the lab or an explosive concentration developing within the oven.

  • Do not use ovens to dry any chemical sample that might pose a hazard because of acute or chronic toxicity unless special precautions have been taken to ensure continuous venting of the atmosphere inside the oven.
  • To avoid explosion, rinse glassware with distilled water after rinsing with organic solvents before drying it in an oven.
  • Do not dry glassware containing organic compounds in an unvented oven.

Bimetallic strip thermometers are preferred for monitoring oven temperatures. Do not mount mercury thermometers through holes in the top of ovens so that the bulb hangs into the oven. If a mercury thermometer is broken in an oven of any type, turn off and close the oven immediately. Keep it closed until cool. Remove all mercury from the cold oven with the use of appropriate cleaning equipment and procedures in order to avoid mercury exposure.

Hot Plates

Laboratory hot plates are normally used for heating solutions to 100 ˚C or above when inherently safer steam baths cannot be used. Ensure any newly purchased hot plates are designed in a way that avoids electrical sparks. Older hot plates pose an electrical spark hazard arising from either the on-off switch located on the hot plate, the bimetallic thermostat used to regulate the temperature or both.

In addition to the spark hazard, old and corroded bimetallic thermostats in these devices can eventually fuse shut and deliver full, continuous current to a hot plate.

  • Do not store volatile flammable materials near a hot plate.
  • Limit use of older hot plates for flammable materials.
  • Check for corrosion of thermostats. Corroded bimetallic thermostats can be repaired or reconfigured to avoid spark hazards. Contact LS/LSS for more information

Heating Mantles

Heating mantles are commonly used for heating round-bottomed flasks, reaction kettles and related reaction vessels. These mantles enclose a heating element in a series of layers of fiberglass cloth. As long as the fiberglass coating is not worn or broken, and as long as no water or other chemicals are spilled into the mantle, heating mantles pose no shock hazard.

Always use a heating mantle with a variable autotransformer to control the input voltage. Never plug them directly into a 220 V line.

Be careful not to exceed the input voltage recommended by the mantle manufacturer. Higher voltages will cause it to overheat, melt the fiberglass insulation and expose the bare heating element.

If the heating mantle has an outer metal case that provides physical protection against damage to the fiberglass, it is good practice to ground the outer metal case to protect against an electric shock if the heating element inside the mantle shorts against the metal case.

Oil, Salt and Sand Baths

Electrically heated oil baths are usually used to heat small or irregularly shaped vessels and to provide stable and accurate temperature. Saturated paraffin oil is suitable below 200 °C; silicon oil is stable until 300 °C. Molten salt baths, like hot oil baths, offer the advantages of good heat transfer, but have a higher operating range (e.g., 200 to 425 oC) and may have a high thermal stability (e.g., 540 oC). There are several precautions to take when working with these types of heating devices:

  • When using oil, salt, or sand baths, water spill or any volatile substance contact to the baths result in splattering of hot material over wide area and serious injuries.
  • Inappropriate applications or utilization of the bath could cause smoke generation or start fire from overheating of oil.
  • Always measure environmental temperature in oil baths by using a thermometer or other thermal sensing devices to ensure that flash point of the oil is below the flash point.
  • Fit oil baths without temperature monitoring that will shut the electric power if the bath overheats.
  • Mix oil baths well to ensure that there are no “hot spots” around the elements that take the surrounding oil to unacceptable temperatures.
  • Hold hot oil in a container that can withstand any accidental physical contact.
  • Mount baths should be kept on a stable horizontal support such as a laboratory jack that can be raised or lowered without danger of the bath tipping over. Iron rings are not suitable supports for hot baths.
  • Clamp equipment should be placed on suitable height above the hot bath. This precaution provide replacing the bath with cooling bath in case of overheating without any readjustment steps.
  • Secondary container should be obtained in the event of a spill of hot oil.
  • Heat-resistant gloves must be worn when handling a hot bath.
  • The reaction container used in a molten salt bath must be able to withstand a very high heating rates and temperature above the melting point of salt.
  • Hygroscopic nature of salt baths can cause hazardous splattering if the absorbed water vaporizes during heat-up. Salt baths should be kept away from moisture.

Hot Air Baths and Tube Furnaces

Hot air baths are used in the lab as heating devices. Nitrogen is preferred for reactions involving flammable materials. Electrically heated air baths are frequently used to heat small or irregularly shaped vessels. One drawback of the hot air bath is that they have a low heat capacity. As a result, these baths normally have to be heated to 100 ˚C or more above the target temperature. Tube furnaces are often used for high-temperature reactions under pressure. Consider the following when working with either apparatus:

  • Ensure that the heating element is completely enclosed.
  • For air baths constructed of glass, wrap the vessel with heat resistant tape to contain the glass if it should break.
  • Sand baths are generally preferable to air baths.
  • For tube furnaces, carefully select glassware and metal tubes and joints to ensure they are able to withstand the pressure.
  • Follow safe practices outlined for both Electrical Safety and Pressure and Vacuum Systems sections.

Heat Guns

Laboratory heat guns are constructed with a motor-driven fan that blows air over an electrically heated filament. They are frequently used to dry glassware or to heat the upper parts of a distillation apparatus during distillation of high-boiling materials and to develop thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates.

The following hazards may occur:

  • The heating element in a heat gun typically becomes extremely hot during use; however, the lack of a visible flame can create a false sense of security or false impression of safety and while the danger zone is invisible, it is very active. The combination of sparks and forced ventilation over a glowing filament may lead to fire and/or explosion.
  • Heat guns operate at lower air speeds and produce temperature as high as 650 ˚C, hot enough to melt some types of glass.
  • The power switches and fan motors are not usually spark-free and can pose a serious ignition hazard.

Several rules and tips for using heat gun are given below:

  • Heat gun should be away from any combustible or flammable materials including open containers of flammable liquids, flammable vapors or hoods used to control flammable vapors/atmospheres.
  • Heat flow direction should be checked.
  • Before you put the heat gun on any surface, the heat gun must switched off.
  • Heat gun must be unplugged when not in use, especially if the lab is unoccupied.
  • There must be at least one centimetre distance between working distance and outlet of the heat gun.
  • Heat should cool down before the storage.
  • Try not to touch any metal surfaces on heat gun with skin or fabric.
  • Heat flow direction must not be directed to any one’s body.
  • Do not look down the nozzle while the gun is operational.
  • Nozzle of the gun should not tampered with anything.
  • Never block the inlet grill or obstruct the air flow of the unit while in operation.
  • Extension cords are prohibited to power a heat gun. High current equipment can pose risk of overheating and electrocution.
  • All samples must be hold with forceps while heat gun is functioning.

Microwave Ovens

Microwave heating presents several potential hazards not commonly encountered with other heating methods: extremely rapid temperature and pressure rise, liquid superheating, arcing, and microwave leakage. Microwave ovens designed for the laboratory have built-in safety features and operation procedures to mitigate or eliminate these hazards. Microwave ovens used in the laboratory may pose several different types of hazards.

As with most electrical apparatus, there is the risk of generating sparks that can ignite flammable vapors.

  • Metals placed inside the microwave oven may produce an arc that can ignite flammable materials.
  • Materials placed inside the oven may overheat and ignite.
  • Sealed containers, even if loosely sealed, can build pressure upon expansion during heating, creating a risk of container rupture.

To minimize the risk of these hazards:

  • Never operate microwave ovens with doors open in order to avoid exposure to microwaves.
  • Do not place wires and other objects between the sealing surface and the door on the front of the oven. The sealing surfaces must be kept absolutely clean.
  • Never use a microwave oven for both laboratory use and food preparation.
  • Electrically ground the microwave. If use of an extension cord is necessary, only a three-wire cord with a rating equal to or greater than that for the oven should be used.
  • Do not use metal containers and metal-containing objects (e.g., stir bars) in the microwave. They can cause arcing.
  • Do not heat sealed containers in the microwave oven. Even heating a container with a loosened cap or lid poses a significant risk since microwave ovens can heat material very quickly and containers can explode.
  • Remove screw caps from containers being microwaved. If the sterility of the contents must be preserved, use cotton or foam plugs. Otherwise plug the container with kimwipes to reduce splash potential.
  • Do not modify a microwave for experimental use.

Pressure and Vacuum Systems

Working with hazardous chemicals at high or low pressures requires planning and special precautions. Procedures should be implemented to protect against explosion or implosion through appropriate equipment selection and the use of safety shields. Care should be taken to select glass apparatus that can safely withstand designated pressure extremes.

High Pressure Vessels

  • Only perform high-pressure processes in pressure vessels suitably designated for the process, properly categorized and installed, and protected by pressure-relief and required control equipment.
  • Vessels must be withstand the stresses encountered at the intended working temperatures and pressures and must not corrode or otherwise react when in contact with the materials it contains.
  • Provide essential high equipment to the systems designed for use at elevated temperatures with a positive temperature controller. Avoid using a manual temperature control, such as a Variac. Use a back-up temperature controller capable of shutting the system down.
  • Working conditions of all pressure equipment determines the frequency of the inspection and assessment. Before each use, visual inspection should be performed.

Vacuum Apparatus

Vacuum work can result in an implosion and the possible hazards of flying glass, splattering chemicals and fire. All vacuum operations must be set up and operated with careful consideration of the potential risks. Equipment at reduced pressure is especially prone to rapid pressure. Such conditions can force liquids through an apparatus, sometimes with undesirable consequences.

  • Use personal protective equipment, such as safety glasses or chemical goggles, face shields, and/or an explosion shield to protect against the hazards of vacuum procedures, and the procedure should be carried out inside a hood.
  • Do not allow water, solvents and corrosive gases to be drawn into vacuum systems. Protect pumps with cold traps and vent their exhaust into an exhaust hood.
  • Assemble vacuum apparatus in a manner that avoids strain, particularly to the neck of the flask.
  • Avoid putting pressure on a vacuum line to prevent stopcocks from popping out or glass apparatus from exploding.
  • Place vacuum apparatus in such a way that the possibility of being accidentally hit is minimized. If necessary, place transparent plastic around it to prevent injury from flying glass in case of an explosion.

Vacuum Trapping

A trap must be placed in between the vacuum device and experimental set-up. The vacuum trap increase the lifetime of the pump. In addition to this potential detrimental effects of the material piping through experimental set-up to laboratory environment could be and prevented.

Improper trapping also could cause contamination of the laboratory environment, exposure to maintenance staff during the routine inspections.

Proper Trapping Techniques

  • Filtration and traps starting from experimental apparatus to the vacuum source could decrease contamination risk.
  • Filtration for particulates is exact solution to trap the particles in generated size range.
  • A filter flask at room temperature is sufficient for most aqueous or non-volatile liquids to prevent liquids from getting to the vacuum source.
  • Cold trap is also appropriate for solvent and other volatile liquids and decreasing the trap temperature to condensation level is key to condense vapors generated. This step is followed by a filter flask capable of collecting fluid that could be aspirated out of the cold trap.
  • Sorbent canister or a scrubbing device is suitable for highly reactive, corrosive or toxic gases.

Cold Traps

For most volatile liquids, a cold trap formulas such as using a slush of dry ice and either isopropanol (IPA) or ethanol is sufficient (to -78 ˚C) to condense most of the vapor. Acetone usage for trapping is prohibited. Ethanol and isopropanol are economical choices and less likely to foam.

Liquid nitrogen may only be a choice if the equipment is sealed or evacuated, and then only with extreme caution. If the system is unwrapped while the cooling bath is still in contact with trap, condensation of oxygen from the atmosphere intiate or trigger the reaction with organic compounds.

Glass Vessels

Although glass vessels are frequently used in pressure and vacuum systems, they can explode or implode violently, either spontaneously from stress failure or from an accidental blow.

  • Pressure and vacuum processes in glass vessels should be performed behind adequate shielding.
  • Glass vessel should be chosen depending on proposed process.
  • Glass vessels should be inspected visually for star cracks, scratches or etching marks before each use. Crack formation and propagation is directly related with defects. Material failure risk increase and vessel could cause chemical leakage.
  • Glass centrifuge tubes must be sealed with rubber stoppers clamped in place. Wrap the vessel with friction tape and shield with a metal screen. Alternatively, wrap with friction tape and surround the vessel with multiple layers of loose cloth, then clamp behind a safety shield.
  • Glass tubes with high-pressure sealers should be filled by % 75 of its volume.
  • Sealed bottles and tubes of flammable materials should be enclosed in cloth, placed behind a safety shield, and then cooled slowly, first with an ice bath, then with dry ice.
  • Never rely on corks, rubber stoppers or plastic tubing as pressure-relief devices.
  • Glass vacuum desiccators should be made of Pyrex or similar glass and wrapped partially with friction tape to guard against flying glass. Plastic dessicators are a good alternative to glass, but still require shielding.
  • Never carry or move an evacuated dessicator.

Dewar Flasks

Dewar flasks are sealed under vacuum to provide better insulation. However; this equipment could easily collapse from thermal shock or slight mechanical shock.

  • Shield flasks with friction tape or enclose in a wooden or metal container to reduce the risk of flying glass.
  • Metal flasks are more durable if there is a significant possibility of breakage.
  • Styrofoam buckets are temporary solution in case of lack of Dewar flask.

Rotary Evaporators

Rotary evaporators can fail under certain conditions. Since glass components of some evaporators could cause serious hazard. Glass made modules of the rotary evaporator should be made of Pyrex or similar glass. Glass vessels should be completely sealed off in a shield to protect against flying glass should the components collapse. Rotation speed and vacuum level of solvent containing flask must be gradually altered in evaporation process.

Stirring and Mixing Devices

The stirring and mixing equipment located in many laboratories include stirring motors, magnetic stirrers, shakers, small pumps for fluids and rotary evaporators for solvent removal. These devices are vital for routine laboratory processes and utilized in a hood. It is quite important that devices could generate electrical sparks.

Spark-free induction motors in power stirring and mixing devices or any other rotating equipment is exact solution for laboratory operations to avoid from electrical sparks. Most of the commercial devices meet this criteria, their on-off switches and rheostat-type speed controls can generate an electrical spark because they have exposed electrical conductors. Do not control speed of an induction motor operating under a load without a variable autotransformer. For more information see Electrical Safety.

The costs of stirrer breakdown, electrical overload or blockage of the motion of the stirring impeller should be taken in consideration due to long operation periods of especially stirring motors and magnetic stirrers without attention.

Refrigerators and Freezers

Refrigerators that are used as chemical storage must be labelled and dedicated for specific purposes. Vapor release from the content in the refrigerator, cross-contamination of the chemicals and spillage poses risk to lab personel and laboratory zone.

General Purpose

General laboratory refrigerators and freezers are domestic use units that are traditionally

High Pressure Vessels

  • Only perform high-pressure processes in pressure vessels suitably designated for the process, properly categorized and installed, and protected by pressure-relief and required control equipment.
  • Vessels must be withstand the stresses encountered at the intended working temperatures and pressures and must not corrode or otherwise react when in contact with the materials it contains.
  • Provide essential high equipment to the systems designed for use at elevated temperatures with a positive temperature controller. Avoid using a manual temperature control, such as a Variac. Use a back-up temperature controller capable of shutting the system down.
  • Working conditions of all pressure equipment determines the frequency of the inspection and assessment. Before each use, visual inspection should be performed.

Vacuum Apparatus

Vacuum work can result in an implosion and the possible hazards of flying glass, splattering chemicals and fire. All vacuum operations must be set up and operated with careful consideration of the potential risks. Equipment at reduced pressure is especially prone to rapid pressure. Such conditions can force liquids through an apparatus, sometimes with undesirable consequences.

  • Use personal protective equipment, such as safety glasses or chemical goggles, face shields, and/or an explosion shield to protect against the hazards of vacuum procedures, and the procedure should be carried out inside a hood.
  • Do not allow water, solvents and corrosive gases to be drawn into vacuum systems. Protect pumps with cold traps and vent their exhaust into an exhaust hood.
  • Assemble vacuum apparatus in a manner that avoids strain, particularly to the neck of the flask.
  • Avoid putting pressure on a vacuum line to prevent stopcocks from popping out or glass apparatus from exploding.
  • Place vacuum apparatus in such a way that the possibility of being accidentally hit is minimized. If necessary, place transparent plastic around it to prevent injury from flying glass in case of an explosion.

Vacuum Trapping

A trap must be placed in between the vacuum device and experimental set-up. The vacuum trap increase the lifetime of the pump. In addition to this potential detrimental effects of the material piping through experimental set-up to laboratory environment could be and prevented.

Improper trapping also could cause contamination of the laboratory environment, exposure to maintenance staff during the routine inspections.

Proper Trapping Techniques

  • Filtration and traps starting from experimental apparatus to the vacuum source could decrease contamination risk.
  • Filtration for particulates is exact solution to trap the particles in generated size range.
  • A filter flask at room temperature is sufficient for most aqueous or non-volatile liquids to prevent liquids from getting to the vacuum source.
  • Cold trap is also appropriate for solvent and other volatile liquids and decreasing the trap temperature to condensation level is key to condense vapors generated. This step is followed by a filter flask capable of collecting fluid that could be aspirated out of the cold trap.
  • Sorbent canister or a scrubbing device is suitable for highly reactive, corrosive or toxic gases.

Cold Traps

For most volatile liquids, a cold trap formulas such as using a slush of dry ice and either isopropanol (IPA) or ethanol is sufficient (to -78 ˚C) to condense most of the vapor. Acetone usage for trapping is prohibited. Ethanol and isopropanol are economical choices and less likely to foam.

Liquid nitrogen may only be a choice if the equipment is sealed or evacuated, and then only with extreme caution. If the system is unwrapped while the cooling bath is still in contact with trap, condensation of oxygen from the atmosphere intiate or trigger the reaction with organic compounds.

Glass Vessels

Although glass vessels are frequently used in pressure and vacuum systems, they can explode or implode violently, either spontaneously from stress failure or from an accidental blow.

  • Pressure and vacuum processes in glass vessels should be performed behind adequate shielding.
  • Glass vessel should be chosen depending on proposed process.
  • Glass vessels should be inspected visually for star cracks, scratches or etching marks before each use. Crack formation and propagation is directly related with defects. Material failure risk increase and vessel could cause chemical leakage.
  • Glass centrifuge tubes must be sealed with rubber stoppers clamped in place. Wrap the vessel with friction tape and shield with a metal screen. Alternatively, wrap with friction tape and surround the vessel with multiple layers of loose cloth, then clamp behind a safety shield.
  • Glass tubes with high-pressure sealers should be filled by % 75 of its volume.
  • Sealed bottles and tubes of flammable materials should be enclosed in cloth, placed behind a safety shield, and then cooled slowly, first with an ice bath, then with dry ice.
  • Never rely on corks, rubber stoppers or plastic tubing as pressure-relief devices.
  • Glass vacuum desiccators should be made of Pyrex or similar glass and wrapped partially with friction tape to guard against flying glass. Plastic dessicators are a good alternative to glass, but still require shielding.
  • Never carry or move an evacuated dessicator.

Dewar Flasks

Dewar flasks are sealed under vacuum to provide better insulation. However; this equipment could easily collapse from thermal shock or slight mechanical shock.

  • Shield flasks with friction tape or enclose in a wooden or metal container to reduce the risk of flying glass.
  • Metal flasks are more durable if there is a significant possibility of breakage.
  • Styrofoam buckets are temporary solution in case of lack of Dewar flask.

Rotary Evaporators

Rotary evaporators can fail under certain conditions. Since glass components of some evaporators could cause serious hazard. Glass made modules of the rotary evaporator should be made of Pyrex or similar glass. Glass vessels should be completely sealed off in a shield to protect against flying glass should the components collapse. Rotation speed and vacuum level of solvent containing flask must be gradually altered in evaporation process.

Stirring and Mixing Devices

The stirring and mixing equipment located in many laboratories include stirring motors, magnetic stirrers, shakers, small pumps for fluids and rotary evaporators for solvent removal. These devices are vital for routine laboratory processes and utilized in a hood. It is quite important that devices could generate electrical sparks.

Spark-free induction motors in power stirring and mixing devices or any other rotating equipment is exact solution for laboratory operations to avoid from electrical sparks. Most of the commercial devices meet this criteria, their on-off switches and rheostat-type speed controls can generate an electrical spark because they have exposed electrical conductors. Do not control speed of an induction motor operating under a load without a variable autotransformer. For more information see Electrical Safety.

The costs of stirrer breakdown, electrical overload or blockage of the motion of the stirring impeller should be taken in consideration due to long operation periods of especially stirring motors and magnetic stirrers without attention.

Refrigerators and Freezers

Refrigerators that are used as chemical storage must be labelled and dedicated for specific purposes. Vapor release from the content in the refrigerator, cross-contamination of the chemicals and spillage poses risk to lab personel and laboratory zone.

General Purpose

General laboratory refrigerators and freezers are domestic use units that are traditionally used to store food and beverages. While not usually suitable for a laboratory environment, they may be used for storing aqueous solutions. No flammable materials should be stored in these units.

Flammable

Flammable material refrigerators and freezers are designed for the storage of flammable solids and liquids. There is no internal switching or wiring that can arc, spark, or generate a source of ignition. The compressor and other circuits usually are located at the top of the unit to reduce the potential for ignition of flammable vapors. These refrigerators also incorporate features such as thresholds, self-closing doors, and magnetic door gaskets. Special inner shell materials limit damage should an exothermic reaction occur within the storage compartment. Be sure to observe flammable storage units, which should be listed on the label of the unit.

Explosion Proof

These units are designed to be operated in areas where the atmosphere outside of the unit could become explosive. Please contact LS/LSS if you feel the need for one of these units.

Food and Drink

The storage of food or drinks store in laboratory refrigerators containing reagents, samples, and any other research materialsis absolutely forbidden.

Safe Handling and Operating Procedures

  • Label all materials with the contents, owner, date of acquisition, and any associated hazards. Readily identifiable coding to a reference document (laboratory notebook, posted inventory, etc.) may be used.
  • Follow all chemical compatibility storage guidelines (see ChemWatch).
  • All materials must be properly capped and sealed. Avoid use of foil or parafilm as a primary method for sealing the container.
  • Shelves must be compatible with the materials stored and secondary containment should be used when storing liquids.
  • Remember that power outages will cause a rise in temperature within the unit. This may lead to energetic decomposition. Please keep this in mind and use emergency power outlets where available.
  • Avoid using frost-free refrigerators and freezers.

References

References and sources for information from the relevant websites and documentation of different universities, NGOs and government agencies used in the preparation of this website are provided at references.